Date of Award

Spring 2002

Document Type

Restricted Thesis

Terms of Use

© 2002 Rebecca Cikoski. All rights reserved. Access to this work is restricted to users within the Swarthmore College network and may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. Sharing with users outside of the Swarthmore College network is expressly prohibited. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Physics & Astronomy Department

First Advisor

Stephan Eisenhardt

Second Advisor

Christopher D. Cothran

Third Advisor

Lubna Rana


Background information is presented about the Standard Model of particle physics and CP violation. The Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment is described, with an emphasis on Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The operation of photomultiplier tubes is described, as well as the importance of a detailed understanding of the responses of the tubes in situations with low photon counts. An analysis of photomultiplier spectra is given, demonstrating the importance of Poisson statistics, the effects of first dynode photoelectron creation, and dynode inhomogeneity to understanding the spectra.