Date of Award

Fall 2021

Document Type


Terms of Use

© 2021 Adam Lloyd-Jones. This work is freely available courtesy of the author. It may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0) license. For all other uses, please contact the copyright holder.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


History Department


In 1868, the American Medical Association (AMA) was asked to permit consultation with female physicians and admit them as delegates. In 1870, a delegation of Black doctors sought entrance to an Annual AMA meeting. The AMA refused entrance to both female and Black physicians. This paper argues that these meetings, and the question of inclusion for Black and female practitioners, arose out of the political climate that Reconstruction created. Expanding from previous scholarship, this paper further analyzes the role of Chicago doctor Nathan Smith Davis in the perpetuation of a white medical profession.

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History Commons