Date of Award

Spring 1995

Document Type

Restricted Thesis

Terms of Use

© 1995 Andrew Elmore. All rights reserved. Access to this work is restricted to users within the Swarthmore College network and may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. Sharing with users outside of the Swarthmore College network is expressly prohibited. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


History Department

First Advisor

Robert Weinberg

Second Advisor

Pieter M. Judson


In revolutionary France, heightened politicization led the aristocrats and bourgeoisie of Orléans to more clearly articulate their class interests, leading to class hostilities that lasted until the end of the July Monarchy when the “emergence of industrialization and state centralization limited the potential of opposition” between the two. This thesis uses primary accounts, including manuscripts, speeches, and petitions, along with secondary analyses on politics and class conflicts to argue that facing a changing state and economy, the “radical rhetoric” that once divided the aristocracy and bourgeoisie allowed them to find common interests and to unite in defense of their now shared goals.


Co-recipient of the Paul H. Beik Prize in History, awarded in 1995.