Date of Award

Fall 1994

Document Type

Restricted Thesis

Terms of Use

© 1994 M. Ram Lee. All rights reserved. Access to this work is restricted to users within the Swarthmore College network and may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. Sharing with users outside of the Swarthmore College network is expressly prohibited. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


History Department


Lee examines the debate between the Federalists and Antifederalists over the taxation powers of Congress during the ratification process of the United States constitution. After using secondary sources to demonstrate an unfair bias against Antifederalists in the historiography of the topic, Lee relies mostly on primary sources such as letters and congressional debates to argue that the Antifederalists were visionaries with pragmatic concerns rather than merely obstructionists.