Date of Award

Fall 2020

Document Type


Terms of Use

© 2020 Emma Novak. All rights reserved. This work is freely available courtesy of the author. It may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


History Department

First Advisor

Robert Weinberg


The French Third Republic under Minister of Education Jules Ferry used public education to breach the sociopolitical divide between urban and rural France at the tail end of the nineteenth century. Ferry’s calls for secularization, centralization, and “republicanization” were countered by the Catholic Church, local governments, and rural families.

Included in

History Commons