Date of Award

Fall 2017

Document Type


Terms of Use

© 2017 Robert T. Zipp. All rights reserved. This work is freely available courtesy of the author. It may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Educational Studies Department, Political Science Department

First Advisor

Lisa Smulyan

Second Advisor

Emily Paddon Rhoads


Evaluating the implementation of human rights norms as broad as the right to education at the domestic level requires the use of supplemental analytical frameworks. In this project, I discuss the implementation of the core norm of the right to education as it manifests in the prescriptive norms guided by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Using the framework set forth by Betts and Orchard, I find that the current structural and ideational factors influencing access to primary education in South Africa are impacted by the country's historical legacy of racial inequality and the economic decisions of the post-apartheid government in the 1990s. I also draw attention to the methodological gaps ofthe current frameworks currently in use to evaluate norm implementation.


South Africa, Education, International Development, Human Rights, Human Rights Norms, Implementation, International Politics, Primary Education, Millennium Development Goals, Neoliberalism, Comparative Education, Racial Inequality, United Nations, Sub-Saharan Africa