Date of Award

Spring 2020

Document Type


Terms of Use

© 2020 Lillian J. Fornof. All rights reserved. This work is freely available courtesy of the author. It may only be used for non-commercial, educational, and research purposes. For all other uses, including reproduction and distribution, please contact the copyright holder.

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Biology Department


Foraging opportunity and predation risk can act as opposing influences on an animal’s habitat use. This opposition can be addressed with a “landscape of fear” (LOF), where models predict the spatial distribution of predators or perceived predator presence using prey responses. LOF models are often generated using a single behavioral metric. Here, I expanded on the concept of LOF by measuring three anti-predatory behaviors—aggregation, alarm calling, and vigilance—in two groups of red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius). I also looked at the relationship of each type of anti-predatory behavior to habitat characteristics, age/sex class, seasonality, and their relationship to the other types of behaviors. I sought to understand possible factors that affect the expression of different types of anti-predatory behavior at the group level. I constructed LOFs from each of the behaviors to explore differences in the regions of perceived predation risk. I found relationships of anti-predatory behaviors to vegetation coverage, group membership, and seasonality to differ between groups and behavior type. The LOF models generated for each behavior and group mapped non-overlapping regions of perceived predation risk distinct to each anti-predatory behavior. Differences in the number of identified regions, the spatial location of these regions, and the size of these regions produced unique perceived predation risk landscapes for each behavior. This in addition to the different relationships to vegetation, age/sex class, and seasonality inform us of a nuanced perception of risk by prey that may call for multiple behavioral response metrics in future LOF studies.

Included in

Biology Commons