War, Peace, And The Ideologies Of The Twentieth Century

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The 20th century can be described as the century of war and ideological conflict. The start of the 20th century saw Europe with five of the world's great powers, UK, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia. The US and Japan were just starting to emerge as nations to reckon with. Liberalism was the dominant ideology at the beginning of the 20th century, expressed as free-market capitalism in business and liberal democracy in politics. Conservatism exemplified right-wing attitudes marked by state-imposed restraints on capitalism and political parties. Socialism stood for left-wing belief with state-ownership of business and social democracy in politics.

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