American Journal of Physics
We compared student learning from different modes of presenting classroom demonstrations to determine how much students learn from traditionally presented demonstrations, and whether learning can be enhanced by simply changing the mode of presentation to increase student engagement. We find that students who passively observe demonstrations understand the underlying concepts no better than students who do not see the demonstration at all, in agreement with previous studies. Learning is enhanced, however, by increasing student engagement; students who predict the demonstration outcome before seeing it, however, display significantly greater understanding.
Catherine Hirshfeld Crouch, A. P. Fagen, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur.
"Classroom Demonstrations: Learning Tools Or Entertainment?".
American Journal of Physics.