Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2003

Published In

Journal Of Japanese Studies


This article examines Hayashi Fumiko's novel "Hōrōki" (Diary of a vagabond) as a personal and historical narrative of Japanese modernity. Arguing for an acknowledgment of "Hōrōki" as a modernist work, it analyzes how Hayashi positions her work with regard to the developing idea of mass culture. Through a consideration of the early mass cultural forms recorded in Hayashi's narrative, it shows how gender and regional identity contribute to the formation of a mass subject who retains the prospect of critical agency.


This work is freely available courtesy of the Journal of Japanese Studies.