Special Employment Programs In OECD Countries

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International Labour Review


In response to the substantial increase in unemployment and its duration in the 1980s, a growing number of special measures have been launched by Western European governments. Most of the special employment programs fall under one or more of the following categories: 1. job creation, 2. on-the-job training, 3. mixed work and training, and 4. enterprise promotion. Ten specific initiatives in 7 countries are examined in order to show the major types of special employment programs characteristic of the late 1970s and 1980s. With regard to administrative structure, the central government normally establishes the framework through legislation with specific decisions on project design and implementation made at the regional or local level. Most programs are financed out of the national budget. Almost all programs set a maximum period of participation. The most immediate concern of the programs is the effect upon the individuals who participated in them.

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