Rumination, Depression, And Gender In Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Of A Bidirectional Model
Journal Of Early Adolescence
Recent research suggests that rumination may represent both a risk factor for and consequence of depression, especially among female samples. Nevertheless, few longitudinal studies have examined a reciprocal model of rumination and depression in early adolescence, just before rates of depression diverge by gender. The present study evaluated a cross-lagged path model of rumination and depression in a sample of 408 early adolescents. Gender moderation was also examined. Support was found for a longitudinal bidirectional model of rumination and depression but only among girls. For boys, increased rumination emerged as a consequence, not as a predictor, of depression symptoms. In early adolescence, rumination may be a greater risk factor for depression among girls than boys, whereas depression may be a significant vulnerability factor for increased rumination among both boys and girls. Why rumination may be more maladaptive for girls than boys is discussed within a psychosocial and developmental framework.
E. D. Krause; C. E. Vélez; Rebecca Y. Woo , '11; B. Hoffman; D. R. Freres; R. M. Abenavoli; and Jane Gillham.
"Rumination, Depression, And Gender In Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Of A Bidirectional Model".
Journal Of Early Adolescence.