Amphotericin-B Phospholipid Interactions Responsible For Reduced Mammalian Cell Toxicity
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
When interacting with phospholipid in an aqueous environment, amphotericin B forms unusual structures of markedly reduced toxicity (Janoff et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6122-6126). These structures, which appear ribbon-like by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (EM), are found exclusively at amphotericin B to lipid mole ratios of 1:3 to 1:1. At lower mole ratios they occur in combination with liposomes. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra revealed two distinct modes of lipid-amphotericin B interaction, one for liposomes and one for the ribbon-like structures. In isolated liposomes, amphotericin B which comprised 3-4 mole percent of the bulk lipid was monomeric and exhibited a hemolytic activity comparable to amphotericin B suspended in deoxycholate. Above 3-4 mole percent amphotericin B, ribbon-like structures emerged and CD spectra indicated drug-lipid complexation. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans of liposomal and complexed amphotericin B were comparable and could be attributed to amphotericin a release as a result of lipid breakdown within the ribbon-like material by a heat labile extracellular yeast product (lipase). Negative stain EM of the ribbon-like structures indicated that the ribbon-like appearance seen by freeze-fracture EM arises as a consequence of the cross-fracturing of what are aggregated, collapsed single lamellar, presumably interdigitated, membranes. Studies examining complexation of amphotericin B with either DMPC or DMPG demonstrated that headgroup interactions played little role in the formation of the ribbon-like structures. With these results we propose that ribbon-like structures result from phase separation of amphotericin B-phospholipid complexes within the phospholipid matrix such that amphotericin B release, and thus acute toxicity, is curtailed. Formation of amphotericin B-lipid structures such as those described here indicates a possible new role for lipid as a stabilizing matrix for drug delivery of lipophilic substances, specifically where a highly ordered packing arrangement between lipid and compound can be achieved.
W. R. Perkins, S. R. Minchey, L. T. Boni, C. E. Swenson, M. C. Popescu, Robert F. Pasternack, and A. S. Janoff.
"Amphotericin-B Phospholipid Interactions Responsible For Reduced Mammalian Cell Toxicity".
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta.